Thursday, June 22, 2017

The American Basswood - Tilia americana

The American Basswood - Tilia americana, is most easily recognized by the combination of alternate, two ranked, and heart shaped leaves that are asymmetric at the base and the leafy bract subtending the flowers and fruit.  It is a deciduous tree that reaches heights of 60-100 feet tall that grows in an erect form with a single trunk.  The crown of the American Basswood is ovoid or rounded with numerous slender branches.  


Image Citation: Vern Wilkins, Indiana University, Bugwood.org

The bark of the American Basswood is smooth and dark gray when young, becoming furrowed with vertical ridges.  The leaves are alternate, simple, 2 ranked, ovate, heart shaped and ovate at the base.  The upper surface of the leaves are a dark yellowish green, hairless with conspicuous veins, while the lower leaf surface is a paler green color and lightly haired.  The blades of the leaves are 12-15 cm long and 7-10 cm wide.  The flowers are yellowish white with 5 sepals, 5 petals and inflorescence.  The fruit is a rounded thick-shelled gray nut that is about 6 mm broad, maturing in Autumn.  


Image Citation: Wendy VanDyk Evans, Bugwood.org


The American Basswood is native to the rich and deciduous woods of North America, it is widespread in the East from New Brunswick and Saskatchewan in the North to Central Florida and Texas in the South.  

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Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Striped Maple - Acer pensylvanicum

The "Striped Maple" - Acer pensylvanicum, (also called Snakebark Maple, Goosefoot, Whistlewood and Moosewood) is the only Snakebark Maple that grows naturally outside of Eastern Asia. It is a small to medium deciduous tree, reaching an average of only 15-25 feet at full maturity. Mainly found growing in shrubby form in the forest understory it is usually not found in residential/commercial landscapes. It is native to moist rocky forest areas along the Appalachian Mountains, North Eastern United States and Eastern Canada.

Image Citation (Photo 1): Rob Routledge, Sault College, Bugwood.org - 
Photo Location: Thielman Road, Goulais River, Ontario, Canada

The leaves are bright green in color during the growing season and triple lobed. In the Fall the leaves change to a pale yellow and tend to fall earlier then other decidous trees in the same area. The bark is green with white stripes when young, the green darkens to a reddish brown when mature. The small yellow-green flowers bloom in pendulous form, appearing on 6 inch long racemes, each flower within the group is usually only about 1/3 of an inch. These flowers appear in the Spring (usually May depending on the area).



Image Citation:Photos 2&3 :Chris Evans, Illinois Wildlife Action Plan, Bugwood.org - 
Photo Locations: Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee

There is a relatively low maintenance tree recommended for zones 3-7. There are no serious insect or disease problems that effect only this variety. It prefers shady areas (forest understory), can tolerate heavy shade and if planted in full sun locations may show signs of scortch on the leaves. Potential diseases include verticillium wilt, leaf spots, tar spot, canker and root rot. Potential insects include aphids, scale, borers, mites and caterpillars.

The various names given to this tree are many and each has it's own "story" behind it.

Striped or Snakebark Maple from it's unusual and appealing bark, which is greenish in color when young and marked with white striped (generally vertically). Stripes may vanish over time as the older bark turns reddish brown and the white begins to darken or fade.

Goosefoot Maple - the broad leaves that are triple lobed and often compared to a goose foot in shape.

Moosewood - Moose and white tailed deer often browse the leaves and young twigs hence the name Moosewood.

Whistlewood - Whistles can easily be carved from branch sections, hence the common name of whistlewood.



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Tuesday, June 20, 2017

The Northern Spicebush - Lindera benzoin

The Northern Spicebush (Lindera benzoin), is most easily recognized by the spicy aromatic leaves that increase in size from the base to the tip of the twig. It is a small deciduous shrub or small tree to reaches only 16 feet tall. It grows in erect form with a single trunk and open crown. When bruised or damaged the plant is quite aromatic.

Image Citation: Vern Wilkins, Indiana University, Bugwood.org

The leaves are alternate, simple, thin, aromatic (when crushed), with hairy upper surfaces and a dark green color. The flowers are yellow, tiny and borne in several-flowered clusters with the male and female flowers occurring on separate plants in the Spring prior to leaf expansion. The fruit is an ellipsoid, bright red drupe, 8-10 mm long and maturing in the Fall. The bark is gray, becoming darker with age.

Image Citation: Chris Evans, University of Illinois, Bugwood.org

It is native to the United States from Ontario and Southern Maine to Florida in the East and Michigan and Texas in the West. It is found primarily along stream banks, moist woodlands, wetland margins from 0-1200 m.

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Monday, June 19, 2017

The American Basswood - Tilia americana

The American Basswood - Tilia americana, is most easily recognized by the combination of alternate, two ranked, and heart shaped leaves that are asymmetric at the base and the leafy bract subtending the flowers and fruit.  It is a deciduous tree that reaches heights of 60-100 feet tall that grows in an erect form with a single trunk.  The crown of the American Basswood is ovoid or rounded with numerous slender branches.  


Image Citation: Vern Wilkins, Indiana University, Bugwood.org

The bark of the American Basswood is smooth and dark gray when young, becoming furrowed with vertical ridges.  The leaves are alternate, simple, 2 ranked, ovate, heart shaped and ovate at the base.  The upper surface of the leaves are a dark yellowish green, hairless with conspicuous veins, while the lower leaf surface is a paler green color and lightly haired.  The blades of the leaves are 12-15 cm long and 7-10 cm wide.  The flowers are yellowish white with 5 sepals, 5 petals and inflorescence.  The fruit is a rounded thick-shelled gray nut that is about 6 mm broad, maturing in Autumn.  


Image Citation: Wendy VanDyk Evans, Bugwood.org


The American Basswood is native to the rich and deciduous woods of North America, it is widespread in the East from New Brunswick and Saskatchewan in the North to Central Florida and Texas in the South.  

Meet More Trees on our website www.ArundelTreeService.com  or www.MeetATree.com

Saturday, June 17, 2017

The Rubber Tree - Hevea brasiliensis

The Rubber Tree - Hevea brasiliensis, is also called Sharinga Tree, Rubberwood or Para Rubber Tree.  It was only originally found growing in the Amazon Rainforest but was planted in more widespread tropical and sub-tropical areas once the demand for it's naturally produced rubber increased.  This tree is a member of the Euphorbiaceae family and has major economic value because of it's milky latex that naturally occurs within the tree.  Recorded uses of this and similar tree rubber/latex products date back to the Olmec people of Mesoamerica some 3600 years ago.  By the late 1800's rubber plantations were established in the British colonies, Java, and Malaya.  Today most rubber plantations outside of the native region occur in tropical portions of South/East Asia and West Africa. Cultivating in South America has not been satisfactory because of leaf blight this leaf blight is a major concern for plantations worldwide as it has not been cured or corrected and is thought to pose a threat to all varieties/clones growing today.

Image Citation: David Cappaert, Michigan State University, Bugwood.org

This latex that occurs in the Rubber Tree is the primary source of natural rubber, it occurs in vessels within the bark just outside of the phloem. The vessels spirals up and around the tree in a right handed helix pattern forming an angle of about 30 degrees and occurring at heights of up to 45 feet.  In the wild the tree has been found to reach heights upwards of 100 feet, but this is not very common.  Trees grow at a much slower rate once they are tapped for latex and are generally cut down after about thirty years as they usually stop producing at this point so they no longer have economical value.  When harvesting cuts are made in the vessels but only deep enough to tap into them without harming the trees growth.  In order to grow these trees require tropical or sub-tropical climates, with no chance of frost.  One simple frost event can completely wipe out a plantation and be detrimental to production as the rubber becomes brittle and breaks.  Latex production is not very reliable the amount and quality is variable from tree to tree. When a tree is tapped (the process is called rubber tapping) the latex is collected in small buckets and looks almost similar to the process used to collect syrup from Maple trees.



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Friday, June 16, 2017

Solanaceae - Nightshade Family

In the family Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) there is a genus called Solanum it contains 1500-2000 varieties of herbs, shrubs and trees. Of these varieties two are major food crops in North America, Potato and Tomato and another less Popular including Eggplant. In other regions there are varieties such as the Ethiopian eggplant, Gilo (S. aethiopicum), Naranjilla or Lulo (S. quitoense), Turkey Berry (S. torvum), Pepino (S. muricatum), Tamarillo and Bush Tomatoes (which includes several Australian species). Most of the members of this family are native to the American Tropics, 65 occur in North America (only 35 are native). Even though two of our largest food crops are included in this genus most of the green parts of the plants and unripened fruits are poisonous, but some bear edible parts in the form of fruit, leaves or tubers. Also included in this genus are Nightshades, Horse Nettles and many other plants cultivated for their ornamental flowers and fruits. The species grows in various habits including annual, perennial, vine, subshrub, shrub and even small trees.

Image Citation: Bruce Ackley, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org - Subject: Buffalobur (Solanum rostratum) Dunal
Image Citation:  Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org  - Subject: Bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) L.

Most of the plants have green simply shape leaves that are ovate or elliptic. Flowers can range in color depending on the variety but generally have 5 petals. The fruits can vary from small and insignificant to large and very visable - berries, tomatoes, potatoes, and eggplants. Some produce fruit from the leaves while other grow underground (like the potato). Many plants in the Solanum genus are an important food source for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species (Butterflies and Moths), these include various Angle shades (Phlogophora meticulosa), various members of the Bedellia species, the Cabbage Moth (Mamestra brassicae), Common swift (Korscheltellus lupulina), Garden dart (Euxoa nigricans), Ghost moth (Hepialus humuli), Tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta), Tomato hornworm (Manduca quinquemaculata), and Turnip moth (Agrotis segetum) to name a few.

Image Citation: J. Jeffrey Mullahey, University of Florida, Bugwood.org Subject: Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum) Dunal

Food Crop production in the Solanum genus is extremely important throughout the world. In 2013, the recorded world production of Tomatoes was 163.4 million tonnes, with China producing 31% of the total, followed by India, the United States and Turkey. In 2012, Tomato production was estimated to be valued at 59 billion dollars, making it the eighth most valuable agricultural product worldwide. In 2013, the recorded world production of Potatoes was 368 million tonnes. Two thirds of the global production is eaten by humans, the remaining third is consumed by animals or used in starch production. Potatoes remains an essential crop in Europe, where per capita production remains the highest in the world. The most rapid expansion over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia. As of 2007, China led the world potato production, and nearly a third of the world's potatoes were harvested between China and India. It is believed that the geographic shift in potato production has been moved from wealthier countries toward low income areas of the world because it is a cheap and plentiful crop that is able to grow in wide varieties of climates and locales. Only about 5% of the world's Potato crop are traded internationally because of the perishability. In 2013, the recorded world production of Eggplants was 49.4 million tonnes, 57% of which came from China, 27% from India, Iran, Egypt and Turkey were also major producers all total account for 97% of the world production. More than 4,000,000 acres are devoted to the cultivation of eggplants in the world.

Image Citation: John Cardina, The Ohio State University, Bugwood.org - Subject: Bittersweet nightshade (Solanum dulcamara) L.
Image Citation: Keith Weller, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org - Subject: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) L.
Image Citation: Peggy Greb, USDA Agricultural Research Service, Bugwood.org - Subject: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) L.

Many members of the Solanaceae:Nightshade family members can be grown in your own landscape some in your vegetable garden and others in you flower gardens. With 1500-2000 varieties and counting I am sure you can find one that is right for you! Hardiness zones vary by plant and within the family can range from zones 4-12.

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Thursday, June 15, 2017

The Ginkgo Tree - Ginkgo Biloba

The Ginkgo Tree - Ginkgo Biloba - is the survivor of all arboreal survivors. There were Ginkgo trees when dinosaurs walked the Earth. The sole remnant of a group of plants even more primitive than Conifers. It is a living fossil, and fossils relating to the modern Ginkgos dating back 270 million years. They were wiped out completely in North America by the Glaciers,and thought to at one time be extinct in the wild the world over. They however thrived in China where the Buddhist monks tended to them in their gardens. When growing in the wild , they are found infrequently in deciduous forests and valleys with fine silty soil. It has long been cultivated in China and is now common in the southern third of that country. They were exported to England in 1754 and to the U.S. about 30 years later, cultivated in both countries for over 200 years it has failed to become significantly naturalized in either.


Ginkgos are also known as Maiden Hair trees, and sometimes referred to by a variation in spelling on the name -Gingko/Gingo/Ginko. They grow to be very tall, they average between 60-100ft, with some specimens in China reaching over 160 ft tall. The tree has an angular crown and long, somewhat erratic branches. This tree is deep rooted which makes it tolerant to wind and snow damage. They grow best in moist soil, but are known to be very tolerant. Young specimens are often tall, slender, and sparcely branched, but with age the crown broadens. In the fall the leaves will turn a bright yellow before they fall often within as short a span as 15 days. Their combination of disease resistance, insect resistant wood, and their ability to form aerial roots/sprouts make them very longed lived. Some specimens in China are claimed to be over 2500 years old.


Being Dioecious, Ginkgos are either male or female. Males produce small pollen cones. Females do not produce cones, instead two ovules are formed at the end of a stalk and after pollenation one or both develop into seeds. The seed is 1-2 cm long, the outer layer is a yellowy brown flesh that is soft and fruit-like. It is attractive in appearance but contains butanoic acid (or butyric acid). The males are generally preferred in urban landscapes because the fruits from the females tend to be messy when they fall onto sidewalks and have a peculiar odor from the butanoic acid (often compared to a strong cheese). The kernel/seed (or Silver Nut) inside the fruit is considered a delicacy in the Orient. The fertilization of a Ginkgo occurs via motile sperm (as in Cycads, ferns, or moss), the sperm have a very complex structure. They adapt well in urban enviroments, tolerating pollution as well as confined soil space, for this reason as well as just being a beautiful tree they are often planted in streetside setting.



Used in both culinary and medicinal settings, the Ginkgo is thought by some to have health benefits and is also considered by others to be an aphrodisiac. However when eaten in large quantities for a number of years (especially by children) the meat of the seed can cause poisoning. Others are sensitive to the chemical in the outer fleshy part of the fruit, having symptoms similar to poison ivy. The extract of Ginkgo leaves contains flavonoid glycosides and terpenoids and have been used pharmaceutically. Medical trials have shown Ginkgo to be moderately effective in improving symptons in dementia patients, but not in preventing the onset of Alzhemiers disease in the average person. Used primarily as a memory and concentration enhancer, and anti-vertigo agent, even though some studies differ in results about its effectiveness. Ginkgos are truely an amazing species of tree all on their own, surviving and adapting for hundred of millions of years.

Image Citations (Photos 1 & 2) : Jan Samanek, State Phytosanitary Administration, Bugwood.org